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Dynamic responses of the Earth's radiation belts during periods of solar wind dynamic pressure pulse based on normalized superposed epoch analysis

Ni B., Z. Xiang, X. Gu, Y. Y. Shprits, C. Zhou, Z. Zhao, X. Zhang, P. Zuo, (2016), Dynamic responses of the Earth’s radiation belts during periods of solar wind dynamic pressure pulse based on normalized superposed epoch analysis, J. of Geophys. Res. [Space Physics], 121, 8523-8536, doi:10.1002/2016JA023067

Abstract

Abstract Using the electron flux measurements obtained from five satellites (GOES 15 and POES 15, 16, 18, and 19), we investigate the flux variations of radiation belt electrons during forty solar wind dynamic pressure pulses identified between September 2012 and December 2014. By utilizing the mean duration of the pressure pulses as the epoch timeline and stretching or compressing the time phases of individual events to normalize the duration by means of linear interpolation, we have performed normalized superposed epoch analysis to evaluate the dynamic responses of radiation belt energetic electrons corresponding to various groups of solar wind and magnetospheric conditions in association with solar wind dynamic pressure pulses. Our results indicate that by adopting the timeline normalization we can reproduce the typical response of the electron radiation belts to pressure pulses. Radiation belt electron fluxes exhibit large depletions right after the Pdyn peak during the periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz and are more likely to occur during the Pdyn pulse under southward IMF Bz conditions. For the pulse events with large negative values of (Dst)min, radiation belt electrons respond in a manner similar to those with southward IMF Bz, and the corresponding postpulse recovery can extend to L ~ 3 and exceed the prepulse flux levels. Triggered by the solar wind pressure enhancements, deeper earthward magnetopause erosion provides favorable conditions for the prompt electron flux dropouts that extend down to L ~ 5, and the pressure pulses with longer duration tend to produce quicker and stronger electron flux decay. In addition, the events with high electron fluxes before the Pdyn pulse tend to experience more severe electron flux dropouts during the course of the pulse, while the largest rate of electron flux increase before and after the pulse occurs under the preconditioned low electron fluxes. These new results help us understand how electron fluxes respond to solar wind dynamic pressure pulses and how these responses depend on the solar wind and geomagnetic conditions and on the preconditions in the electron radiation belts.

Authors (sorted by name)

Gu Ni Shprits Xiang Zhang Zhao Zhou Zuo

Journal / Conference

Journal Of Geophysical Research (Space Physics)

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by NSFC grants 41204120, 41474141, 41304130, and 41574160, the Projects funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2013 M542051 and 2014 T70732), and the Project supported by the Specialized Research Fund for State Key Laboratories. GOES data were obtained from http://satdat.ngdc.noaa.gov/sem/goes/, POES MEPED data were obtained from ftp://satdat.ngdc.noaa.gov/sem/poes/, and the solar wind parameters and geomagnetic activity indices were obtained from the NASA OmniWeb (http://cdaweb.gsfc.nasa.gov).

Grants

41204120 41304130 41474141 41574160

Bibtex

@article{doi:10.1002/2016JA023067,
author = {Ni, Binbin and Xiang, Zheng and Gu, Xudong and Shprits, Yuri Y. and Zhou, Chen and Zhao, Zhengyu and Zhang, Xianguo and Zuo, Pingbing},
title = {Dynamic responses of the Earth's radiation belts during periods of solar wind dynamic pressure pulse based on normalized superposed epoch analysis},
year = {2016},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics},
volume = {121},
number = {9},
pages = {8523-8536},
keywords = {outer belt electron dropout, solar wind dynamic pressure pulse, normalized superposed epoch analysis, magnetopause shadowing, wave-induced electron precipitation},
doi = {10.1002/2016JA023067},
url = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/2016JA023067},
eprint = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/2016JA023067},
abstract = {Abstract Using the electron flux measurements obtained from five satellites (GOES 15 and POES 15, 16, 18, and 19), we investigate the flux variations of radiation belt electrons during forty solar wind dynamic pressure pulses identified between September 2012 and December 2014. By utilizing the mean duration of the pressure pulses as the epoch timeline and stretching or compressing the time phases of individual events to normalize the duration by means of linear interpolation, we have performed normalized superposed epoch analysis to evaluate the dynamic responses of radiation belt energetic electrons corresponding to various groups of solar wind and magnetospheric conditions in association with solar wind dynamic pressure pulses. Our results indicate that by adopting the timeline normalization we can reproduce the typical response of the electron radiation belts to pressure pulses. Radiation belt electron fluxes exhibit large depletions right after the Pdyn peak during the periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz and are more likely to occur during the Pdyn pulse under southward IMF Bz conditions. For the pulse events with large negative values of (Dst)min, radiation belt electrons respond in a manner similar to those with southward IMF Bz, and the corresponding postpulse recovery can extend to L ~ 3 and exceed the prepulse flux levels. Triggered by the solar wind pressure enhancements, deeper earthward magnetopause erosion provides favorable conditions for the prompt electron flux dropouts that extend down to L ~ 5, and the pressure pulses with longer duration tend to produce quicker and stronger electron flux decay. In addition, the events with high electron fluxes before the Pdyn pulse tend to experience more severe electron flux dropouts during the course of the pulse, while the largest rate of electron flux increase before and after the pulse occurs under the preconditioned low electron fluxes. These new results help us understand how electron fluxes respond to solar wind dynamic pressure pulses and how these responses depend on the solar wind and geomagnetic conditions and on the preconditions in the electron radiation belts.}
}